الحمل والولادة





1.A psychotic client reports to the evening nurse that the day nurse put something suspicious in his water with his medication. The nurse replies, "You're worried about your medication?" The nurse's communication is:

A. an example of presenting reality.
B. reinforcing the client's delusions.
C. focusing on emotional content.
D. a nontherapeutic technique called mind reading.

2. A client is admitted to the inpatient unit of the mental health center with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. He's shouting that the government of France is trying to assassinate him. Which of the following responses is most appropriate?

A. "I think you're wrong. France is a friendly country and an ally of the United States. Their government wouldn't try to kill you."
B. "I find it hard to believe that a foreign government or anyone else is trying to hurt you. You must feel frightened by this."
C. "You're wrong. Nobody is trying to kill you."
D. "A foreign government is trying to kill you? Please tell me more about it."

3. Propranolol (Inderal) is used in the mental health setting to manage which of the following conditions?
A. Antipsychotic-induced akathisia and anxiety
B. The manic phase of bipolar illness as a mood stabilizer
C. Delusions for clients suffering from schizophrenia
D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to reduce ritualistic behavior

4. A client with borderline personality disorder becomes angry when he is told that today's psychotherapy session with the nurse will be delayed 30 minutes because of an emergency. When the session finally begins, the client expresses anger. Which response by the nurse would be most helpful in dealing with the client's anger?

A. "If it had been your emergency, I would have made the other client wait."
B. "I know it's frustrating to wait. I'm sorry this happened."
C. "You had to wait. Can we talk about how this is making you feel right now?"
D. "I really care about you and I'll never let this happen again."

5. How soon after chlorpromazine (Thorazine) administration should the nurse expect to see a client's delusional thoughts and hallucinations eliminated

A. Several minutes
B. Several hours
C. Several days
D. Several weeks

6. A client receiving haloperidol (Haldol) complains of a stiff jaw and difficulty swallowing. The nurse's first action is to:

A. reassure the client and administer as needed lorazepam (Ativan) I.M.
B. administer as needed dose of benztropine (Cogentin) I.M. as ordered.
C. administer as needed dose of benztropine (Cogentin) by mouth as ordered.
D. administer as needed dose of haloperidol (Haldol) by mouth.

7. A client with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia comments to the nurse, "How do I know what is really in those pills?" Which of the following is the best response?

A. Say, "You know it's your medicine."
B. Allow him to open the individual wrappers of the medication.
C. Say, "Don't worry about what is in the pills. It's what is ordered."
D. Ignore the comment because it's probably a joke.

8. The nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia who experiences auditory hallucinations. The client appears to be listening to someone who isn't visible. He gestures, shouts angrily, and stops shouting in mid-sentence. Which nursing intervention is the most appropriate?

A. Approach the client and touch him to get his attention.
B. Encourage the client to go to his room where he'll experience fewer distractions.
C. Acknowledge that the client is hearing voices but make it clear that the nurse doesn't hear these voices.
D. Ask the client to describe what the voices are saying.

9. Yesterday, a client with schizophrenia began treatment with haloperidol (Haldol). Today, the nurse notices that the client is holding his head to one side and complaining of neck and jaw spasms. What should the nurse do?

A. Assume that the client is posturing.
B. Tell the client to lie down and relax.
C. Evaluate the client for adverse reactions to haloperidol.
D. Put the client on the list for the physician to see tomorrow

10. A client with paranoid schizophrenia has been experiencing auditory hallucinations for many years. One approach that has proven to be effective for hallucinating clients is to:

A. take an as-needed dose of psychotropic medication whenever they hear voices.
B. practice saying "Go away" or "Stop" when they hear voices.
C. sing loudly to drown out the voices and provide a distraction.
D. go to their room until the voices go away.

11. A client with catatonic schizophrenia is mute, can't perform activities of daily living, and stares out the window for hours. What is the nurse's first priority?

A. Assist the client with feeding.
B. Assist the client with showering.
C. Reassure the client about safety.
D. Encourage socialization with peers.

12. A client tells the nurse that the television newscaster is sending a secret message to her. The nurse suspects the client is experiencing:

A. a delusion.
B. flight of ideas.
C. ideas of reference.
D. a hallucination.

13. The nurse knows that the physician has ordered the liquid form of the drug chlorpromazine (Thorazine) rather than the tablet form because the liquid:

A. has a more predictable onset of action.
B. produces fewer anticholinergic effects.
C. produces fewer drug interactions.
D. has a longer duration of action.

14. A client who has been hospitalized with disorganized type schizophrenia for 8 years can't complete activities of daily living (ADLs) without staff direction and assistance. The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Self-care deficient: Dressing/grooming related to inability to function without assistance. What is an appropriate goal for this client?

A. "Client will be able to complete ADLs independently within 1 month."
B. "Client will be able to complete ADLs with only verbal encouragement within 1 month."
C. "Client will be able to complete ADLs with assistance in organizing grooming items and clothing within 1 month."
D. "Client will be able to complete ADLs with complete assistance within 1 month."

15. The nurse is planning care for a client admitted to the psychiatric unit with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Which nursing diagnosis should receive the highest priority?

A. Risk for violence toward self or others
B. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
C. Ineffective family coping
D. Impaired verbal communication

16. The nurse is preparing for the discharge of a client who has been hospitalized for paranoid schizophrenia. The client's husband expresses concern over whether his wife will continue to take her daily prescribed medication. The nurse should inform him that:

A. his concern is valid but his wife is an adult and has the right to make her own decisions.
B. he can easily mix the medication in his wife's food if she stops taking it.
C. his wife can be given a long-acting medication that is administered every 1 to 4 weeks.
D. his wife knows she must take her medication as prescribed to avoid future hospitalizations.

17. Benztropine (Cogentin) is used to treat the extrapyramidal effects induced by antipsychotics. This drug exerts its effect by:

A. decreasing the anxiety causing muscle rigidity.
B. blocking the cholinergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS).
C. increasing the level of acetylcholine in the CNS.
D. increasing norepinephrine in the CNS.

18. A client is admitted to the inpatient unit of the mental health center with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. He's shouting that the government of France is trying to assassinate him. Which of the following responses is most appropriate?

A. "I think you're wrong. France is a friendly country and an ally of the United States. Their government wouldn't try to kill you."
B. "I find it hard to believe that a foreign government or anyone else is trying to hurt you. You must feel frightened by this."
C. "You're wrong. Nobody is trying to kill you."
D. "A foreign government is trying to kill you? Please tell me more about it."

19. A dopamine receptor agonist such as bromocriptine (Parlodel) relieves muscle rigidity caused by antipsychotic medication by:

A. blocking dopamine receptors in the central nervous system (CNS).
B. blocking acetylcholine in the CNS.
C. activating norepinephrine in the CNS.
D. activating dopamine receptors in the CNS.

20. Most antipsychotic medications exert which of following effects on the central nervous system (CNS)?

A. Stimulate the CNS by blocking postsynaptic dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin receptors.
B. Sedate the CNS by stimulating serotonin at the synaptic cleft.
C. Depress the CNS by blocking the postsynaptic transmission of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
D. Depress the CNS by stimulating the release of acetylcholine.

21. A client is admitted to the psychiatric unit of a local hospital with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. During the next several days, the client is seen laughing, yelling, and talking to herself. This behavior is characteristic of:

A. delusion.
B. looseness of association.
C. illusion.
D. hallucination.

22. Which of the following medications would the nurse expect the physician to order to reverse a dystonic reaction?

A. prochlorperazine (Compazine)
B. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
C. haloperidol (Haldol)
D. midazolam (Versed)

23. A schizophrenic client states, "I hear the voice of King Tut." Which response by the nurse would be most therapeutic?

A. "I don't hear the voice, but I know you hear what sounds like a voice."
B. "You shouldn't focus on that voice."
C. "Don't worry about the voice as long as it doesn't belong to anyone real."
D. "King Tut has been dead for years."

24. A psychotic client reports to the evening nurse that the day nurse put something suspicious in his water with his medication. The nurse replies, "You're worried about your medication?" The nurse's communication is:

A. an example of presenting reality.
B. reinforcing the client's delusions.
C. focusing on emotional content.
D. a nontherapeutic technique called mind reading.

25. The nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia who experiences auditory hallucinations. The client appears to be listening to someone who isn't visible. He gestures, shouts angrily, and stops shouting in mid-sentence. Which nursing intervention is the most appropriate?

A. Approach the client and touch him to get his attention.
B. Encourage the client to go to his room where he'll experience fewer distractions.
C. Acknowledge that the client is hearing voices but make it clear that the nurse doesn't hear these voices.
D. Ask the client to describe what the voices are saying

26. A client has been receiving chlorpromazine (Thorazine), an antipsychotic, to treat his psychosis. Which findings should alert the nurse that the client is experiencing pseudoparkinsonism?

A. Restlessness, difficulty sitting still, and pacing
B. Involuntary rolling of the eyes
C. Tremors, shuffling gait, and masklike face
D. Extremity and neck spasms, facial grimacing, and jerky movements

27. For several years, a client with chronic schizophrenia has received 10 mg of fluphenazine hydrochloride (Prolixin) by mouth four times per day. Now the client has a temperature of 102° F (38.9° C), a heart rate of 120 beats/minute, a respiratory rate of 20 breaths/minute, and a blood pressure of 210/140 mm Hg. Because the client also is confused and incontinent, the nurse suspects malignant neuroleptic syndrome. What steps should the nurse take?

A. Give the next dose of fluphenazine, call the physician, and monitor vital signs.
B. Withhold the next dose of fluphenazine, call the physician, and monitor vital signs.
C. Give the next dose of fluphenazine and restrict the client to the room to decrease stimulation.
D. Withhold the next dose of fluphenazine, administer an antipyretic agent, and increase the client's fluid intake.

28. A schizophrenic client with delusions tells the nurse, "There is a man wearing a red coat who's out to get me." The client exhibits increasing anxiety when focusing on the delusions. Which of the following would be the best response?

A. "This subject seems to be troubling you. Let's walk to the activity room."
B. "Describe the man who's out to get you. What does he look like?"
C. "There is no reason to be afraid of that man. This hospital is very secure."
D. "There is no need to be concerned with a man who isn't even real."
 
29. Important teaching for women in their childbearing years who are receiving antipsychotic medications includes which of the following?

A. Occurrence of increased libido due to medication adverse effects
B. Increased incidence of dysmenorrhea while taking the drug
C. Continuing previous use of contraception during periods of amenorrhea
D. Instruction that amenorrhea is irreversible

30. A client is admitted to a psychiatric facility with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia. The history indicates that the client has been taking neuroleptic medication for many years. Assessment reveals unusual movements of the tongue, neck, and arms. Which condition should the nurse suspect?

A. Tardive dyskinesia
B. Dystonia
C. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
D. Akathisia

31. What medication would probably be ordered for the acutely aggressive schizophrenic client?

A. chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
B. haloperidol (Haldol)
C. lithium carbonate (Lithonate)
D. amitriptyline (Elavil)

32. A client is admitted with a diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. Which signs would this client exhibit during social situations?

A. Aggressive behavior
B. Paranoid thoughts
C. Emotional affect
D. Independence needs

33. During the initial interview, a client with schizophrenia suddenly turns to the empty chair beside him and whispers, "Now just leave. I told you to stay home. There isn't enough work here for both of us!" What is the nurse's best initial response?

A. "When people are under stress, they may see things or hear things that others don't. Is that what just happened?"
B. "I'm having a difficult time hearing you. Please look at me when you talk."
C. "There is no one else in the room. What are you doing?"
D. "Who are you talking to? Are you hallucinating?"

34. The definition of nihilistic delusions is:

A. a false belief about the functioning of the body.
B. belief that the body is deformed or defective in a specific way.
C. false ideas about the self, others, or the world
D. the inability to carry out motor activities.

35. A client who's taking antipsychotic medication develops a very high temperature, severe muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and rapid deterioration in mental status. The nurse suspects what complication of antipsychotic therapy?

A. Agranulocytosis
B. Extrapyramidal effects
C. Anticholinergic effects
D. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)

36. The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Impaired social interaction related to disorganized thinking for a client with schizotypal personality disorder. Based on this nursing diagnosis, which nursing intervention takes highest priority?

A. Helping the client to participate in social interactions
B. Establishing a one-on-one relationship with the client
C. Exploring the effects of the client's behavior on social interactions
D. Developing a schedule for the client's participation in social interactions

37. A client with schizophrenia hears a voice telling him he is evil and must die. The nurse understands that the client is experiencing:

A. a delusion.
B. flight of ideas.
C. ideas of reference.
D. a hallucination.

38. A client with delusional thinking shows a lack of interest in eating at meal times. She states that she is unworthy of eating and that her children will die if she eats. Which nursing action would be most appropriate for this client?

A. Telling the client that she may become sick and die unless she eats
B. Paying special attention to the client's rituals and emotions associated with meals
C. Restricting the client's access to food except at specified meal and snack times
D. Encouraging the client to express her feelings at meal times

39. Which of the following groups of characteristics would the nurse expect to see in the client with schizophrenia?

A. Loose associations, grandiose delusions, and auditory hallucinations
B. Periods of hyperactivity and irritability alternating with depression
C. Delusions of jealousy and persecution, paranoia, and mistrust
D. Sadness, apathy, feelings of worthlessness, anorexia, and weight loss

40. The nurse must administer a medication to reverse or prevent Parkinson-type symptoms in a client receiving an antipsychotic. The medication the client will likely receive is:

A. Benztropine (Cogentin).
B. diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
C. propranolol (Inderal).
D. haloperidol (Haldol).

41. A client is receiving haloperidol (Haldol) to reduce psychotic symptoms. As he watches television with other clients, the nurse notes that he has trouble sitting still. He seems restless, constantly moving his hands and feet and changing position. When the nurse asks what is wrong, he says he feels jittery. How should the nurse manage this situation?

A. Ask the client to sit still or leave the room because he is distracting the other clients.
B. Ask the client if he is nervous or anxious about something.
C. Give an as needed dose of a prescribed anticholinergic agent to control akathisia.
D. Administer an as needed dose of haloperidol to decrease agitation.

42. A man is brought to the hospital by his wife, who states that for the past week her husband has refused all meals and accused her of trying to poison him. During the initial interview, the client's speech, only partly comprehensible, reveals that his thoughts are controlled by delusions that he is possessed by the devil. The physician diagnoses paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is best described as a disorder characterized by:

A. disturbed relationships related to an inability to communicate and think clearly.
B. severe mood swings and periods of low to high activity.
C. multiple personalities, one of which is more destructive than the others.
D. auditory and tactile hallucinations.

43. A client has a history of chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. Because she has a history of noncompliance with antipsychotic therapy, she'll receive fluphenazine decanoate (Prolixin Decanoate) injections every 4 weeks. Before discharge, what should the nurse include in her teaching plan?

A. Asking the physician for droperidol (Inapsine) to control any extrapyramidal symptoms that occur
B. Sitting up for a few minutes before standing to minimize orthostatic hypotension
C. Notifying the physician if her thoughts don't normalize within 1 week
D. Expecting symptoms of tardive dyskinesia to occur and to be transient

44. A client with chronic schizophrenia who takes neuroleptic medication is admitted to the psychiatric unit. Nursing assessment reveals rigidity, fever, hypertension, and diaphoresis. These findings suggest which life-threatening reaction:

A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. dystonia.
C. neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
D. akathisia.

45. While looking out the window, a client with schizophrenia remarks, "That school across the street has creatures in it that are waiting for me." Which of the following terms best describes what the creatures represent?

A. Anxiety attack
B. Projection
C. Hallucination
D. Delusion

46. A client with schizophrenia tells the nurse, "My intestines are rotted from the worms chewing on them." This statement indicates a:

A. delusion of persecution.
B. delusion of grandeur.
C. somatic delusion.
D. jealous delusion.

47. During the assessment stage, a client with schizophrenia leaves his arm in the air after the nurse has taken his blood pressure. His action shows evidence of:

A. somatic delusions.
B. waxy flexibility.
C. neologisms.
D. nihilistic delusions.

48. A client with paranoid type schizophrenia becomes angry and tells the nurse to leave him alone. The nurse should

A. tell him that she'll leave for now but will return soon.
B. ask him if it's okay if she sits quietly with him.
C. ask him why he wants to be left alone.
D. tell him that she won't let anything happen to him

49. Nursing care for a client with schizophrenia must be based on valid psychiatric and nursing theories. The nurse's interpersonal communication with the client and specific nursing interventions must be:

A. clearly identified with boundaries and specifically defined roles.
B. warm and nonthreatening.
C. centered on clearly defined limits and expression of empathy.
D. flexible enough for the nurse to adjust the plan of care as the situation warrants.

50. When discharging a client after treatment for a dystonic reaction, the emergency department nurse must ensure that the client understands which of the following?

A. Results of treatment are rapid and dramatic but may not last.
B. Although uncomfortable, this reaction isn't serious.
C. The client shouldn't buy drugs on the street.
D. The client must take benztropine (Cogentin) as prescribed to prevent a return of symptoms.

51. The nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia. Which of the following outcomes is the least desirable?

A. The client spends more time by himself.
B. The client doesn't engage in delusional thinking.
C. The client doesn't harm himself or others.
D. The client demonstrates the ability to meet his own self-care needs.

52. The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Impaired verbal communication for a client with schizotypal personality disorder. Based on this nursing diagnosis, which nursing intervention is most appropriate?

A. Helping the client to participate in social interactions
B. Establishing a one-on-one relationship with the client
C. Establishing alternative forms of communication
D. Allowing the client to decide when he wants to participate in verbal communication with the nurse
Rationale: By establishing a one-on-one relationship, the nurse helps the client learn how to interact with people in new situations. The other options are appropriate but should take place only after the nurse-client relationship is established.

53. Since admission 4 days ago, a client has refused to take a shower, stating, "There are poison crystals hidden in the showerhead. They'll kill me if I take a shower." Which nursing action is most appropriate?

A. Dismantling the showerhead and showing the client that there is nothing in it
B. Explaining that other clients are complaining about the client's body odor
C. Asking a security officer to assist in giving the client a shower
D. Accepting these fears and allowing the client to take a sponge bath

54. Drug therapy with thioridazine (Mellaril) shouldn't exceed a daily dose of 800 mg to prevent which adverse reaction?

A. Hypertension
B. Respiratory arrest
C. Tourette syndrome
D. Retinal pigmentation


55. A client with paranoid personality disorder is admitted to a psychiatric facility. Which remark by the nurse would best establish rapport and encourage the client to confide in the nurse?

A. "I get upset once in a while, too."
B. "I know just how you feel. I'd feel the same way in your situation."
C. "I worry, too, when I think people are talking about me."
D. "At times, it's normal not to trust anyone."

56. How soon after chlorpromazine (Thorazine) administration should the nurse expect to see a client's delusional thoughts and hallucinations eliminated?

A. Several minutes
B. Several hours
C. Several days
D. Several weeks

57. A client is about to be discharged with a prescription for the antipsychotic agent haloperidol (Haldol), 10 mg by mouth twice per day. During a discharge teaching session, the nurse should provide which instruction to the client?

A. Take the medication 1 hour before a meal.
B. Decrease the dosage if signs of illness decrease.
C. Apply a sunscreen before being exposed to the sun.
D. Increase the dosage up to 50 mg twice per day if signs of illness don't decrease.

58. A client with paranoid schizophrenia repeatedly uses profanity during an activity therapy session. Which response by the nurse would be most appropriate?

A. "Your behavior won't be tolerated. Go to your room immediately."
B. "You're just doing this to get back at me for making you come to therapy."
C. "Your cursing is interrupting the activity. Take time out in your room for 10 minutes."
D. "I'm disappointed in you. You can't control yourself even for a few minutes."

59. Which of the following is one of the advantages of the newer antipsychotic medication risperidone (Risperdal)?

A. The absence of anticholinergic effects
B. A lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects
C. Photosensitivity and sedation
D. No incidence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome

60. The etiology of schizophrenia is best described by:

A. genetics due to a faulty dopamine receptor.
B. environmental factors and poor parenting.
C. structural and neurobiological factors.
D. a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors.

61. A client with schizophrenia who receives fluphenazine (Prolixin) develops pseudoparkinsonism and akinesia. What drug would the nurse administer to minimize extrapyramidal symptoms?

A. benztropine (Cogentin)
B. dantrolene (Dantrium)
C. clonazepam (Klonopin)
D. diazepam (Valium)

62. A client with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia comments to the nurse, "How do I know what is really in those pills?" Which of the following is the best response?

A. Say, "You know it's your medicine."
B. Allow him to open the individual wrappers of the medication.
C. Say, "Don't worry about what is in the pills. It's what is ordered."
D. Ignore the comment because it's probably a joke.

63. A client tells the nurse that people from Mars are going to invade the earth. Which response by the nurse would be most therapeutic?

A. "That must be frightening to you. Can you tell me how you feel about it?"
B. "There are no people living on Mars."
C. "What do you mean when you say they're going to invade the earth?"
D. "I know you believe the earth is going to be invaded, but I don't believe that."

Rationale: This response addresses the client's underlying fears without feeding the delusion. Refuting the
64. A client with schizophrenia tells the nurse he hears the voices of his dead parents. To help the client ignore the voices, the nurse should recommend that he:

A. sit in a quiet, dark room and concentrate on the voices.
B. listen to a personal stereo through headphones and sing along with the music.
C. call a friend and discuss the voices and his feelings about them.
D. engage in strenuous exercise.

65. A client with schizophrenia is receiving antipsychotic medication. Which nursing diagnosis may be appropriate for this client?

A. Ineffective protection related to blood dyscrasias
B. Urinary frequency related to adverse effects of antipsychotic medication
C. Risk for injury related to a severely decreased level of consciousness
D. Risk for injury related to electrolyte disturbances

66. A client with persistent, severe schizophrenia has been treated with phenothiazines for the past 17 years. Now the client's speech is garbled as a result of drug-induced rhythmic tongue protrusion. What is another name for this extrapyramidal symptom?

A. Dystonia
B. Akathisia
C. Pseudoparkinsonism
D. Tardive dyskinesia

67. The nurse is assigned to a client with catatonic schizophrenia. Which intervention should the nurse include in the client's plan of care?

A. Meeting all of the client's physical needs
B. Giving the client an opportunity to express concerns
C. Administering lithium carbonate (Lithonate) as prescribed
D. Providing a quiet environment where the client can be alone

68. A client with a history of medication noncompliance is receiving outpatient treatment for chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. The physician is most likely to prescribe which medication for this client?

A. chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
B. imipramine (Tofranil)
C. lithium carbonate (Lithane)
D. fluphenazine decanoate (Prolixin Decanoate)

69. Propranolol (Inderal) is used in the mental health setting to manage which of the following conditions?

A. Antipsychotic-induced akathisia and anxiety
B. The manic phase of bipolar illness as a mood stabilizer
C. Delusions for clients suffering from schizophrenia
D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to reduce ritualistic behavior

70. Every day for the past 2 weeks, a client with schizophrenia stands up during group therapy and screams, "Get out of here right now! The elevator bombs are going to explode in 3 minutes!" The next time this happens, how should the nurse respond?

A. "Why do you think there is a bomb in the elevator?"
B. "That is the same thing you said in yesterday's session."
C. "I know you think there are bombs in the elevator, but there aren't."
D. "If you have something to say, you must do it according to our group rules."

71. A 26-year-old client is admitted to the psychiatric unit with acute onset of schizophrenia. His physician prescribes the phenothiazine chlorpromazine (Thorazine), 100 mg by mouth four times per day. Before administering the drug, the nurse reviews the client's medication history. Concomitant use of which drug is likely to increase the risk of extrapyramidal effects?

A. guanethidine (Ismelin)
B. droperidol (Inapsine)
C. lithium carbonate (Lithonate)
D. alcohol

72. A client, age 36, with paranoid schizophrenia believes the room is bugged by the Central Intelligence Agency and that his roommate is a foreign spy. The client has never had a romantic relationship, has no contact with family members, and hasn't been employed in the last 14 years. Based on Erikson's theories, the nurse should recognize that this client is in which stage of psychosocial development?

A. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
B. Generativity versus stagnation
C. Integrity versus despair
D. Trust versus mistrust

73. During a group therapy session in the psychiatric unit, a client constantly interrupts with impulsive behavior and exaggerated stories that cast her as a hero or princess. She also manipulates the group with attention-seeking behaviors, such as sexual comments and angry outbursts. The nurse realizes that these behaviors are typical of:

A. paranoid personality disorder.
B. avoidant personality disorder.
C. histrionic personality disorder.
D. border
oy who has just experienced her second spontaneous abortion expresses anger towards her physician, the hospital and the “rotten nursing care”. When assessing the situation, the nurse recognizes that the client may be using the coping mechanism of:
a. Projection
b. Displacement
c. Denial
d. Reaction formation


1. A psychotic client reports to the evening nurse that the day nurse put something suspicious in his water with his medication. The nurse replies, “You’re worried about your medication?” The nurse’s communication is:
A. an example of presenting reality.
B. reinforcing the client’s delusions.
C. focusing on emotional content.
D. a nontherapeutic technique called mind reading.

2. A client is admitted to the inpatient unit of the mental health center with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. He’s shouting that the government of France is trying to assassinate him. Which of the following responses is most appropriate?
A. “I think you’re wrong. France is a friendly country and an ally of the United States. Their government wouldn’t try to kill you.”
B. “I find it hard to believe that a foreign government or anyone else is trying to hurt you. You must feel frightened by this.”
C. “You’re wrong. Nobody is trying to kill you.”
D. “A foreign government is trying to kill you? Please tell me more about it.”

3. Propranolol (Inderal) is used in the mental health setting to manage which of the following conditions?
A. Antipsychotic-induced akathisia and anxiety
B. The manic phase of bipolar illness as a mood stabilizer
C. Delusions for clients suffering from schizophrenia
D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to reduce ritualistic behavior
4. A client with borderline personality disorder becomes angry when he is told that today’s psychotherapy session with the nurse will be delayed 30 minutes because of an emergency. When the session finally begins, the client expresses anger. Which response by the nurse would be most helpful in dealing with the client’s anger?
A. “If it had been your emergency, I would have made the other client wait.”
B. “I know it’s frustrating to wait. I’m sorry this happened.”
C. “You had to wait. Can we talk about how this is making you feel right now?”
D. “I really care about you and I’ll never let this happen again.”

5. How soon after chlorpromazine (Thorazine) administration should the nurse expect to see a client’s delusional thoughts and hallucinations eliminated
A. Several minutes
B. Several hours
C. Several days
D. Several weeks

6. A client receiving haloperidol (Haldol) complains of a stiff jaw and difficulty swallowing. The nurse’s first action is to:
A. reassure the client and administer as needed lorazepam (Ativan) I.M.
B. administer as needed dose of benztropine (Cogentin) I.M. as ordered.
C. administer as needed dose of benztropine (Cogentin) by mouth as ordered.
D. administer as needed dose of haloperidol (Haldol) by mouth.

7. A client with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia comments to the nurse, “How do I know what is really in those pills?” Which of the following is the best response?
A. Say, “You know it’s your medicine.”
B. Allow him to open the individual wrappers of the medication.
C. Say, “Don’t worry about what is in the pills. It’s what is ordered.”
D. Ignore the comment because it’s probably a joke.

8. The nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia who experiences auditory hallucinations. The client appears to be listening to someone who isn’t visible. He gestures, shouts angrily, and stops shouting in mid-sentence. Which nursing intervention is the most appropriate?
A. Approach the client and touch him to get his attention.
B. Encourage the client to go to his room where he’ll experience fewer distractions.
C. Acknowledge that the client is hearing voices but make it clear that the nurse doesn’t hear these voices.
D. Ask the client to describe what the voices are saying.

9. Yesterday, a client with schizophrenia began treatment with haloperidol (Haldol). Today, the nurse notices that the client is holding his head to one side and complaining of neck and jaw spasms. What should the nurse do?
A. Assume that the client is posturing.
B. Tell the client to lie down and relax.
C. Evaluate the client for adverse reactions to haloperidol.
D. Put the client on the list for the physician to see tomorrow

10. A client with paranoid schizophrenia has been experiencing auditory hallucinations for many years. One approach that has proven to be effective for hallucinating clients is to:
A. take an as-needed dose of psychotropic medication whenever they hear voices.
B. practice saying “Go away” or “Stop” when they hear voices.
C. sing loudly to drown out the voices and provide a distraction.
D. go to their room until the voices go away.

11. A client with catatonic schizophrenia is mute, can’t perform activities of daily living, and stares out the window for hours. What is the nurse’s first priority?
A. Assist the client with feeding.
B. Assist the client with showering.
C. Reassure the client about safety.
D. Encourage socialization with peers.

12. A client tells the nurse that the television newscaster is sending a secret message to her. The nurse suspects the client is experiencing:
A. a delusion.
B. flight of ideas.
C. ideas of reference.
D. a hallucination.

13. The nurse knows that the physician has ordered the liquid form of the drug chlorpromazine (Thorazine) rather than the tablet form because the liquid:
A. has a more predictable onset of action.
B. produces fewer anticholinergic effects.
C. produces fewer drug interactions.
D. has a longer duration of action.

14. A client who has been hospitalized with disorganized type schizophrenia for 8 years can’t complete activities of daily living (ADLs) without staff direction and assistance. The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Self-care deficient: Dressing/grooming related to inability to function without assistance. What is an appropriate goal for this client?
A. “Client will be able to complete ADLs independently within 1 month.”
B. “Client will be able to complete ADLs with only verbal encouragement within 1 month.”
C. “Client will be able to complete ADLs with assistance in organizing grooming items and clothing within 1 month.”
D. “Client will be able to complete ADLs with complete assistance within 1 month.”

15. The nurse is planning care for a client admitted to the psychiatric unit with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Which nursing diagnosis should receive the highest priority?
A. Risk for violence toward self or others
B. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
C. Ineffective family coping
D. Impaired verbal communication

16. The nurse is preparing for the discharge of a client who has been hospitalized for paranoid schizophrenia. The client’s husband expresses concern over whether his wife will continue to take her daily prescribed medication. The nurse should inform him that:
A. his concern is valid but his wife is an adult and has the right to make her own decisions.
B. he can easily mix the medication in his wife’s food if she stops taking it.
C. his wife can be given a long-acting medication that is administered every 1 to 4 weeks.
D. his wife knows she must take her medication as prescribed to avoid future hospitalizations.
17. Benztropine (Cogentin) is used to treat the extrapyramidal effects induced by antipsychotics. This drug exerts its effect by:
A. decreasing the anxiety causing muscle rigidity.
B. blocking the cholinergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS).
C. increasing the level of acetylcholine in the CNS.
D. increasing norepinephrine in the CNS.

18. A client is admitted to the inpatient unit of the mental health center with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. He’s shouting that the government of France is trying to assassinate him. Which of the following responses is most appropriate?
A. “I think you’re wrong. France is a friendly country and an ally of the United States. Their government wouldn’t try to kill you.”
B. “I find it hard to believe that a foreign government or anyone else is trying to hurt you. You must feel frightened by this.”
C. “You’re wrong. Nobody is trying to kill you.”
D. “A foreign government is trying to kill you? Please tell me more about it.”

19. A dopamine receptor agonist such as bromocriptine (Parlodel) relieves muscle rigidity caused by antipsychotic medication by:
A. blocking dopamine receptors in the central nervous system (CNS).
B. blocking acetylcholine in the CNS.
C. activating norepinephrine in the CNS.
D. activating dopamine receptors in the CNS.

20. Most antipsychotic medications exert which of following effects on the central nervous system (CNS)?
A. Stimulate the CNS by blocking postsynaptic dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin receptors.
B. Sedate the CNS by stimulating serotonin at the synaptic cleft.
C. Depress the CNS by blocking the postsynaptic transmission of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
D. Depress the CNS by stimulating the release of acetylcholine.

21. A client is admitted to the psychiatric unit of a local hospital with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. During the next several days, the client is seen laughing, yelling, and talking to herself. This behavior is characteristic of:
A. delusion.
B. looseness of association.
C. illusion.
D. hallucination.

22. Which of the following medications would the nurse expect the physician to order to reverse a dystonic reaction?
A. prochlorperazine (Compazine)
B. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
C. haloperidol (Haldol)
D. midazolam (Versed)

23. A schizophrenic client states, “I hear the voice of King Tut.” Which response by the nurse would be most therapeutic?
A. “I don’t hear the voice, but I know you hear what sounds like a voice.”
B. “You shouldn’t focus on that voice.”
C. “Don’t worry about the voice as long as it doesn’t belong to anyone real.”
D. “King Tut has been dead for years.”

24. A psychotic client reports to the evening nurse that the day nurse put something suspicious in his water with his medication. The nurse replies, “You’re worried about your medication?” The nurse’s communication is:
A. an example of presenting reality.
B. reinforcing the client’s delusions.
C. focusing on emotional content.
D. a nontherapeutic technique called mind reading.

25. The nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia who experiences auditory hallucinations. The client appears to be listening to someone who isn’t visible. He gestures, shouts angrily, and stops shouting in mid-sentence. Which nursing intervention is the most appropriate?
A. Approach the client and touch him to get his attention.
B. Encourage the client to go to his room where he’ll experience fewer distractions.
C. Acknowledge that the client is hearing voices but make it clear that the nurse doesn’t hear these voices.
D. Ask the client to describe what the voices are saying

26. A client has been receiving chlorpromazine (Thorazine), an antipsychotic, to treat his psychosis. Which findings should alert the nurse that the client is experiencing pseudoparkinsonism?
A. Restlessness, difficulty sitting still, and pacing
B. Involuntary rolling of the eyes
C. Tremors, shuffling gait, and masklike face
D. Extremity and neck spasms, facial grimacing, and jerky movements

27. For several years, a client with chronic schizophrenia has received 10 mg of fluphenazine hydrochloride (Prolixin) by mouth four times per day. Now the client has a temperature of 102° F (38.9° C), a heart rate of 120 beats/minute, a respiratory rate of 20 breaths/minute, and a blood pressure of 210/140 mm Hg. Because the client also is confused and incontinent, the nurse suspects malignant neuroleptic syndrome. What steps should the nurse take?
A. Give the next dose of fluphenazine, call the physician, and monitor vital signs.
B. Withhold the next dose of fluphenazine, call the physician, and monitor vital signs.
C. Give the next dose of fluphenazine and restrict the client to the room to decrease stimulation.
D. Withhold the next dose of fluphenazine, administer an antipyretic agent, and increase the client’s fluid intake.

28. A schizophrenic client with delusions tells the nurse, “There is a man wearing a red coat who’s out to get me.” The client exhibits increasing anxiety when focusing on the delusions. Which of the following would be the best response?
A. “This subject seems to be troubling you. Let’s walk to the activity room.”
B. “Describe the man who’s out to get you. What does he look like?”
C. “There is no reason to be afraid of that man. This hospital is very secure.”
D. “There is no need to be concerned with a man who isn’t even real.”

29. Important teaching for women in their childbearing years who are receiving antipsychotic medications includes which of the following?
A. Occurrence of increased libido due to medication adverse effects
B. Increased incidence of dysmenorrhea while taking the drug
C. Continuing previous use of contraception during periods of amenorrhea
D. Instruction that amenorrhea is irreversible

30. A client is admitted to a psychiatric facility with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia. The history indicates that the client has been taking neuroleptic medication for many years. Assessment reveals unusual movements of the tongue, neck, and arms. Which condition should the nurse suspect?
A. Tardive dyskinesia
B. Dystonia
C. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
D. Akathisia

31. What medication would probably be ordered for the acutely aggressive schizophrenic client?
A. chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
B. haloperidol (Haldol)
C. lithium carbonate (Lithonate)
D. amitriptyline (Elavil)

32. A client is admitted with a diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. Which signs would this client exhibit during social situations?
A. Aggressive behavior
B. Paranoid thoughts
C. Emotional affect
D. Independence needs

33. During the initial interview, a client with schizophrenia suddenly turns to the empty chair beside him and whispers, “Now just leave. I told you to stay home. There isn’t enough work here for both of us!” What is the nurse’s best initial response?
A. “When people are under stress, they may see things or hear things that others don’t. Is that what just happened?”
B. “I’m having a difficult time hearing you. Please look at me when you talk.”
C. “There is no one else in the room. What are you doing?”
D. “Who are you talking to? Are you hallucinating?”

34. The definition of nihilistic delusions is:
A. a false belief about the functioning of the body.
B. belief that the body is deformed or defective in a specific way.
C. false ideas about the self, others, or the world
D. the inability to carry out motor activities.

35. A client who’s taking antipsychotic medication develops a very high temperature, severe muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and rapid deterioration in mental status. The nurse suspects what complication of antipsychotic therapy?
A. Agranulocytosis
B. Extrapyramidal effects
C. Anticholinergic effects
D. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)

36. The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Impaired social interaction related to disorganized thinking for a client with schizotypal personality disorder. Based on this nursing diagnosis, which nursing intervention takes highest priority?
A. Helping the client to participate in social interactions
B. Establishing a one-on-one relationship with the client
C. Exploring the effects of the client’s behavior on social interactions
D. Developing a schedule for the client’s participation in social interactions

37. A client with schizophrenia hears a voice telling him he is evil and must die. The nurse understands that the client is experiencing:
A. a delusion.
B. flight of ideas.
C. ideas of reference.
D. a hallucination.

38. A client with delusional thinking shows a lack of interest in eating at meal times. She states that she is unworthy of eating and that her children will die if she eats. Which nursing action would be most appropriate for this client?
A. Telling the client that she may become sick and die unless she eats
B. Paying special attention to the client’s rituals and emotions associated with meals
C. Restricting the client’s access to food except at specified meal and snack times
D. Encouraging the client to express her feelings at meal times

39. Which of the following groups of characteristics would the nurse expect to see in the client with schizophrenia?
A. Loose associations, grandiose delusions, and auditory hallucinations
B. Periods of hyperactivity and irritability alternating with depression
C. Delusions of jealousy and persecution, paranoia, and mistrust
D. Sadness, apathy, feelings of worthlessness, anorexia, and weight loss

40. The nurse must administer a medication to reverse or prevent Parkinson-type symptoms in a client receiving an antipsychotic. The medication the client will likely receive is:
A. Benztropine (Cogentin).
B. diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
C. propranolol (Inderal).
D. haloperidol (Haldol).

41. A client is receiving haloperidol (Haldol) to reduce psychotic symptoms. As he watches television with other clients, the nurse notes that he has trouble sitting still. He seems restless, constantly moving his hands and feet and changing position. When the nurse asks what is wrong, he says he feels jittery. How should the nurse manage this situation?
A. Ask the client to sit still or leave the room because he is distracting the other clients.
B. Ask the client if he is nervous or anxious about something.
C. Give an as needed dose of a prescribed anticholinergic agent to control akathisia.
D. Administer an as needed dose of haloperidol to decrease agitation.

42. A man is brought to the hospital by his wife, who states that for the past week her husband has refused all meals and accused her of trying to poison him. During the initial interview, the client’s speech, only partly comprehensible, reveals that his thoughts are controlled by delusions that he is possessed by the devil. The physician diagnoses paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is best described as a disorder characterized by:
A. disturbed relationships related to an inability to communicate and think clearly.
B. severe mood swings and periods of low to high activity.
C. multiple personalities, one of which is more destructive than the others.
D. auditory and tactile hallucinations.

43. A client has a history of chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. Because she has a history of noncompliance with antipsychotic therapy, she’ll receive fluphenazine decanoate (Prolixin Decanoate) injections every 4 weeks. Before discharge, what should the nurse include in her teaching plan?
A. Asking the physician for droperidol (Inapsine) to control any extrapyramidal symptoms that occur
B. Sitting up for a few minutes before standing to minimize orthostatic hypotension
C. Notifying the physician if her thoughts don’t normalize within 1 week
D. Expecting symptoms of tardive dyskinesia to occur and to be transient

44. A client with chronic schizophrenia who takes neuroleptic medication is admitted to the psychiatric unit. Nursing assessment reveals rigidity, fever, hypertension, and diaphoresis. These findings suggest which life-threatening reaction:
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. dystonia.
C. neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
D. akathisia.

45. While looking out the window, a client with schizophrenia remarks, “That school across the street has creatures in it that are waiting for me.” Which of the following terms best describes what the creatures represent?
A. Anxiety attack
B. Projection
C. Hallucination
D. Delusion

46. A client with schizophrenia tells the nurse, “My intestines are rotted from the worms chewing on them.” This statement indicates a:
A. delusion of persecution.
B. delusion of grandeur.
C. somatic delusion.
D. jealous delusion.

47. During the assessment stage, a client with schizophrenia leaves his arm in the air after the nurse has taken his blood pressure. His action shows evidence of:
A. somatic delusions.
B. waxy flexibility.
C. neologisms.
D. nihilistic delusions.

48. A client with paranoid type schizophrenia becomes angry and tells the nurse to leave him alone. The nurse should
A. tell him that she’ll leave for now but will return soon.
B. ask him if it’s okay if she sits quietly with him.
C. ask him why he wants to be left alone.
D. tell him that she won’t let anything happen to him

49. Nursing care for a client with schizophrenia must be based on valid psychiatric and nursing theories. The nurse’s interpersonal communication with the client and specific nursing interventions must be:
A. clearly identified with boundaries and specifically defined roles.
B. warm and nonthreatening.
C. centered on clearly defined limits and expression of empathy.
D. flexible enough for the nurse to adjust the plan of care as the situation warrants.

50. When discharging a client after treatment for a dystonic reaction, the emergency department nurse must ensure that the client understands which of the following?
A. Results of treatment are rapid and dramatic but may not last.
B. Although uncomfortable, this reaction isn’t serious.
C. The client shouldn’t buy drugs on the street.

D. The client must take benztropine (Cogentin) as prescribed to prevent a return of symptoms.
1-Knowledge and skills in the care of violent clients is vital in the psychiatric unit. A nurse observes that a client with a potential for violence is agitated, pacing up and down the hallway and making aggressive remarks. Which of the following statements is most appropriate to make to this patient?
A
What is causing you to become agitated?
B
You need to stop that behavior now.
C
You will need to be restrained if you do not change your behavior.
D
You will need to be placed in seclusion.




2-The nurse closely observes the client who has been displaying aggressive behavior. The nurse observes that the client’s anger is escalating. Which approach is least helpful for the client at this time?
A
Acknowledge the client’s behavior
B
Maintain a safe distance from the client
C
Assist the client to an area that is quiet
D
Initiate confinement measures
Pick the correct order of the stages in development.
a. repression, denial, projection, isolation, regression
b. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
c. latency, oral, denial, anal, genital
d. birth, child, adult, die
e. phallic, oral, latency, genital, anal
1. Forcing thoughts to remain unconscious in order to avoid the anxiety that would result if they were conscious is the definition of which Freudian defense mechanism?
a. denial
b. isolation
c. regression
d. repression
e. projection
Teaching for a client taking antipsychotic medication should include which of the following instructions?
a.)Take the medication with antacid to prevent upset stomach.
b.)Get fresh air and plenty of sunshine.
c.)If a dose is missed, take two the next time.
d.)Avoid abrupt withdrawal of the medication.
A 30-year-old woman mentions that she saw the face of ‘Monkey God’ appears on the tree trunk of a particular tree near her apartment.  She can see the face of ‘Monkey God’ every time when she walks past that tree but not on the other trees. This phenomenon is known as:
a.    Delusional misidentification
b.    Delusion of reference
c.    Fantasy
d.   Illusion
e.    Visual hallucination.

A client with paranoid type schizophrenia becomes angry and tells the nurse to leave him alone. The nurse should
1.    Tell him that she'll leave for now but will return soon.
2.    Ask him if it's okay if she sits quietly with him.
3.    Ask him why he wants to be left alone.
4.    Tell him that she won't let anything happen to him

During the initial interview, a client with schizophrenia suddenly turns to the empty chair beside him and whispers, "Now just leave. I told you to stay home. There isn't enough work here for both of us!" What is the nurse's best initial response?

1.    "When people are under stress, they may see things or hear things that others don't. Is that what just happened?"
2.    "I'm having a difficult time hearing you. Please look at me when you talk."
3.    "There is no one else in the room. What are you doing?"
4.    "Who are you talking to? Are you hallucinating

the nurse is caring for a client with schizophrenia who experiences auditory hallucinations. The client appears to be listening to someone who isn't visible. He gestures, shouts angrily, and stops shouting in mid-sentence. Which nursing intervention is the most appropriate?
1.    Approach the client and touch him to get his attention
2.    Encourage the client to go to his room where he'll experience fewer distractions.
3.    Acknowledge that the client is hearing voices but make it clear that the nurse doesn't hear these voices.
4.    Ask the client to describe what the voices are saying

The nurse must administer a medication to reverse or prevent Parkinson-type symptoms in a client receiving an antipsychotic. The medication the client will likely receive is:
1.    Benztropine (Cogentin).
2.    Diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
3.    Propranolol (Inderal).
4.    Haloperidol (Haldol).

Which of the following groups of characteristics would the nurse expect to see in the client with schizophrenia?

1.    Loose associations, grandiose delusions, and auditory hallucinations
2.    Periods of hyperactivity and irritability alternating with depression
3.    Delusions of jealousy and persecution, paranoia, and mistrust
4.    Sadness, apathy, feelings of worthlessness, anorexia, and weight loss
important teaching for women in their childbearing years who are receiving antipsychotic medications includes which of the following?
1.    Occurrence of increased libido due to medication adverse effects
2.    Increased incidence of dysmenorrhea while taking the drug
3.    Continuing previous use of contraception during periods of amenorrhea
4.    Instruction that amenorrhea is irreversible

The nurse is preparing for the discharge of a client who has been hospitalized for paranoid schizophrenia. The client's husband expresses concern over whether his wife will continue to take her daily prescribed medication. The nurse should inform him that:
1.    His concern is valid but his wife is an adult and has the right to make her own decisions.
2.    He can easily mix the medication in his wife's food if she stops taking it.
3.    His wife can be given a long-acting medication that is administered every 1 to 4 weeks.
4.    His wife knows she must take her medication as prescribed to avoid future hospitalizations

What medication would probably be ordered for the acutely aggressive schizophrenic client?
1.    Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
2.    Haloperidol (Haldol)
3.    Lithium carbonate (Lithonate)
4.    Amitriptyline (Elavil)

A client with chronic schizophrenia who takes neuroleptic medication is admitted to the psychiatric unit. Nursing assessment reveals rigidity, fever, hypertension, and diaphoresis. These findings suggest which life-threatening reaction:
1.    Tardive dyskinesia.
2.    Dystonia.
3.    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
4.    Akathisia.

A client with schizophrenia hears a voice telling him he is evil and must die. The nurse understands that the client is experiencing:
1.    A delusion.
2.    Flight of ideas.
3.    Ideas of reference.
4.    A hallucination.

Benztropine (Cogentin) is used to treat the extrapyramidal effects induced by antipsychotics. This drug exerts its effect by
1.    Decreasing the anxiety causing muscle rigidity.
2.    Blocking the cholinergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS).
3.    Increasing the level of acetylcholine in the CNS
4.    Increasing norepinephrine in the CNS

A dopamine receptor agonist such as bromocriptine (Parlodel) relieves muscle rigidity caused by antipsychotic medication by:
1.    Blocking dopamine receptors in the central nervous system (CNS).
2.    Blocking acetylcholine in the CNS.
3.    Activating norepinephrine in the CNS.
4.    Activating dopamine receptors in the CNS
During a home visit, the nurse discovers that the client is less verbal, less active, less responsive to directions, severely anxious, and more stuporous. The nurse interprets these findings to indicate that the client needs?

1.    A sleep aid.
2.    A clinic appointment
3.    An increase in medication.
4.    Hospitalization.
When developing the teaching plan for the family of a client with severe depression who is to receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which of the following information should the nurse include?

a.    Some temporary confusion and disorientation immediately after a treatment is common    B
b.    During an ECT treatment session, the client is at risk for aspiration
c.    Clients with severe depression usually do not respond to ECG
d.    The client will not be able to breathe independently during a treatment


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