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What is pneumonia

Pneumonia is infection and inflammation of parenchyma of lung . Lung consists of alveoli in normal person it is filled with air but when there is infection it filled with 
secretion and pus.

Causes of pneumonia

Cause my be
1- Bacterial :  Group B streptococci
2-Virus : is the most common cause especially in children ( Influenza virus –adenovirus-respiratory synacial virus)




Signs and symptoms of pneumonia  depend on degree of pneumonia

·        Cough
·        Fever
·        Malaise
·        Chills
·        Rapid shallow respiration
·        Fast breathing  ( in children from 12 months – 5 years  respiratory rate is 40 c/minute
·        Nausea and vomiting
·        Increase heart rate
·        Chest pain especially  during cough
·        Nasal congestion
·        Loss of appetite
·        Diarrhea
In sever pneumonia

·        Grunting
·        Not able to drink
·        Abnormal sleep
·        Difficulty  in waking  convolution
·        Sever malnutrition
·        Chest retraction


Nursing care plan and intervention for pneumonia

(1) Nursing diagnosis

Ineffective breathing related to inflammation and pain

Nursing goal

The patient will exhibit normal respiratory function

Nursing intervention
1-   Maintaining open of airway
2-   Provide humidity atmosphere
3-   Give oxygen for patient according to physician order
4-   Put patient in comfortable position
5-   Do measure to reduce anxiety
6-   Provide good humidity atmosphere
7-   Keep rest of patient
Expected out come

Respiration remains with normal level


(2) Nursing Diagnosis

Ineffective airway clearance related to mechanical destruction and secretion

Nursing goal
   
The patient will maintain open of air way

Nursing intervention

1-   Place patient in comfortable position
2-   Suction for patient as needed
3-   Help patient in expulsion of sputum
4-   Monitor blood gas analysis
5-   Help patient in breathing exercise
6-   Nothing per mouth in sever tachypnea
7-   Nebulization as needed
Expected outcome

1-   Airway become clear
2-   Patient breath normal

(3) Nursing diagnosis

Anxiety related to hospitalization and pain

Nursing goal

Patient will remain calm and quiet

Nursing intervention

1-   Remain with patient during procedure
2-   Explain procedure and equipment to patient
3-   Avoid procedures which  increase anxiety of patient
4-   Listen to patient problems
Nursing outcome

Patient response to comforting measures


(4) Nursing diagnosis

Abnormal body temperature due to hyperthermia related to infection

Nursing Goal

The patient will be within normal temperature

Nursing intervention

1-    Instruct patient to wear light clothes
2-   Monitor patient temperature every 1 hours because if there is sudden elevation may cause convulation
3-   Administer antipyretic as physician order
4-   Apply cold compress ass needed to reduce temperature
5-   Keep environment cool
6-   Give patient antibiotic as order to treat  the cause
Expected outcome

The  patient temperature become within normal range

(5) Nursing diagnosis

Fatigue  related to abnormal sleep

Nursing goal

The patient will have decreased fatigue

Nursing intervention

1.    Maintain calm and quiet environment  which allow patient to have normal sleep
2.    Make sure that the patient take normal period of sleep
Expected outcome

The patient don't have  fatigue and sleep good

(6) Nursing Diagnosis

Anxiety and fear related to lack of knowledge about disease

Nursing goal

Patient will be less anxious

Nursing intervention

1-   Allow visitors to stay with the patient during hospitalization
2-   Explain all procedure to patient  to reduce his anxiety
3-   Provide emotional support  by listening to him
To home care
·        The nurse teach patient about medication
·        The nurse teach him about maintain and important of cool environment
·        Signs and symptoms of respiratory distress
·        Important of  taking good fluid and high caloric diet

(7) Nursing diagnosis

Abnormal nutrition related to increased metabolic rate due to infection process

Nursing goal

The patient will have good nutrition intake

Nursing Intervention

1-   1-the nurse must provide balanced diet with high protein to increase immunity
2-   The nurse must provide small frequent meals
Expected out come

1-   The patient have normal weight and no evidence of weight loss
2-   The patient eat within normal 

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