الحمل والولادة


Asthma  defined as chronic obstructive disease of the airways characterized b 
hyper-activity of bronchia and trachea to variety stimuli

Causes of asthma

Asthma is result of 
-Allergic hypersensitivity to foreign substances usually carried by air like plant pollens . In some cases there is no allergic process can be detected -
Animal dander, dust and smokes-
Asthma may be precipitated by factors such as :-

·        Stress
·        Fatigue
·        Exercise 
·        Cold air
·        Illness such as immunologic disease






Nursing care plan and intervention for asthma


1- Nursing diagnosis for asthma 

Impaired gas exchange due to bronchial constriction

Nursing Goal

 Child will have improved gas exchange notice by lack of wheezing and pinkish of skin color

Nursing Interventions:

1.    Encourage coughing and deep breathing exercise every 2 hours  because cough will clear mucus from lung and breathing exercise facilitates oxygenation .instruct to take 3 or 4 deep breaths then cough during been in sitting position
2.    Suction to remove the mucous
3.    Check respiratory rate and osculate for lung sounds
4.    Carry chest physiotherapy : Combination of postural drainage ,chest percussion and vibration and deep breathing exercises

2- Nursing Diagnosis

Fatigue related to hypoxia and lack of oxygenation

Nursing Goal

 The child exhibit decrease restlessness this can be appear by no signs of respiratory distress ,sleep interruption and increase ability for performance

Nursing intervention

1.    Check for signs of hypoxia or hypercapnia like (restlessness ,cyanosis, increase heart rate ,decrease respiratory rate )
2.    Monitor drug level in blood serum and notify the doctor if level increased to reduce the dose
3.    Place the patient in supine position with the head of the bed elevated 45 degree : Expansion of the lung decrease hypoxia and improve oxygenation
4.    Provide good rest because decrease activity will decrease respiratory effort

3-Nursing diagnosis 

Abnormal nutrition : related to gastro –intestinal distress

Nursing goal

The child will have decreased gastro-intestinal distress this appears by no nausea and vomiting and increase in nutrition intake

Nursing intervention

1.    Provide small frequent meals  . small frequent meals requires small amount of energy to be digested and decrease lung expansion
2.    Decrease or restrict spicy and fat food (these types of food not easy to digest)

4-Nursing diagnosis

Deficit of fluid volume due to loss of fluid from respiratory tract

Nursing goal 

The patient maintain adequate fluid volume this can be shown by good urine and skin condition

Nursing intervention

1.    The nurse must check skin condition and urine output every 4 hours
2.    Encourage fluid intake depend on patient age

5-Nursing diagnosis

Knowledge deficit

Nursing goal

The patient and his family will understanding of home care 

Nursing interventions

1.    The nurse must explain the physiology of disease to patient and help him to comply with treatment medication
2.    The nurse should teaches the patient about  the following

1-   Importance of taking medication and their side effects
2-   Importance of maintaining activity level of patient
3-   Symptoms of respiratory infection including fever and wheezing to prevent respiratory distress
4-   Tell patient about precipitating factor that lead to asthma

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