الحمل والولادة

مزكرة الكمياء الحيوية الفرقة الاولى
medical biochemistry  Summary for nursing students


شرح كمياء حيوية




Write short account on :

1) Different examples of Glycosaminoglycans

importance
Stracture
Glycosaminoglycan
In synovial fluid السائل الزلالى
-Vitrous humour مادة شفافة دقيقة تملاء الشبكية  -around ovum البويضة
N- acytyl glucosamine
    Glucuronic acid


Hyaluronic acid


Produced by mast cells  .Act as anticoagulant as activator for lipoprotein lipase

Sulfated glucosamine
Uronic acid


Heparin



Present in cartilage
-Tendon  and bone
Sulfated  N-acetyl galactosamine
Glucuronic acid
Chondriotin
Sulfate




2) Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates?

1 –Monosaccharides السكريات الأحادية enter cells lining the intestine via specific transport proteins.

2 –then pass from cells into the blood , distributed to liver enter the glycolytic

3-  SGIT 1(sodium dependent glucose transporter): carry glucose from intestinal lumen تجويف الامعاء into intestinal cell .it derives glucose and sodium ions intestinal cells.

4- GLUT2: is responsible for carrying glucose across countr-lumenal membrane to blood stream

3)Two equations of krebs cycle

1- Under anaerobic conditionsتحت الظروف اللاهوائية

Glycolysis consists of 11 coupled reactions with overall net reaction being:

D- glucose + 2Pi + 2ADP        2 Lactate + 2hH+ 2ATP 2H2O

2- under aerobic conditionsتحت الظروف الهوائية  

Glycolysis consists of 10 coupled reactions

D- glucose + 2 pi + 2ADP+ 2NAD               2Pyruvate + 2ATP+ 2 NADH H

4-favism? انيميا الفول



DEFICIENCY OF g6PDH leading to defect in detoxication of H2O2 and increase the viable fragility of RBCS.خلل فى ازلة السموم الناتجة عن المواد المؤكسدة وزيادة تكسير كرات الدم الحمرا

Symptoms include neonatal jaundice صفراء الولادة  and acute hemolytic anemia

Anemia can be treated by certain drugs and ingestion of fava beans

5– Essential fatty acids ?

Fatty acids containing more than one double bondرابطة مزدوجه e.g linoleic

Sources :vegetable oil (olive and corn)  .they are components of phospholipids

Function:

They form cholesterol esters with cholesterol.

2- Arachidonic acid is the precuts or of biologically important prostaglandis

3- They enter structure of cell membrane.

4- They play important roles in regulation metabolism

Hormones involved in blood glucose regulation(6)سؤال هام جدا


Hormonal action
Blood
Glucose
Hormone

1-Stimulate glycolysis
2- Stimulation of glycogenesis in liver
3- Inhibition of gluconeogenesis


Insulin
الوحيد الذى يخفض
السكر
Stimulation of glycogenolysis



Adrenaline
Stimulation of glycogenolysis
Stimulation of gluconeogenesis




Glucagon


Stimulation of gluconeogenesis





Corticosterone
Growth
hormone

1-  Activates absorption of glucose
2- Activates glycogenolysis
3- Stimulation of glycolysis


Thyroxin




(7) lipoproteinsالبروتينات الدهنية  ?

There are lipids combined with مختلطة ب proteins

In lipoprotein complex , the protein surrounds the lipid fractions , making  them  water soluble and ready to circulate in blood البروتين يحيط بالدهون المفتتة ويجعلها قابلة للذوبان فى الماء للدوران فى الدم

Function
lipoprotein
Transport of exogenous triglyceride to liver and muscle
chylomicrons

Transport of endogenoistriglycerid from liver to adipose/muscle

VLD
Transport of cholesterol from liver to other tissue

LDL
Transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissue and other lipoproteins to liver.


HDL



(8)Antioxidant

1- Vitamin { Vit A –Vit E –Vit C –Carotenoides}

2- Enzymes {Catalase – Glutathione peroxidase- Superoxide dismutase}

3- Minerals { Selenium- Copper- zinc act as cofactor to the enzymes}

(9) Phospholipids

Their structure consisted of phosphoric acid and they are the main content of all biological membranes.

1- Lecithin  

Formed from  Glycerol+saturated fatty acid + unsaturated fatty acid + phosophric acid +choline base

Importance:

1- consists of all biological membranes

2 – Lung surfactant       Dipalmity1 lecithin contains two palmitic acid molecules acts as surfactant in the lung lead to lowering the surface tension and helping in breathingيقلل شد وتوتر سطح الرئة فيساعد على التنفس

2- Sphingomyelin :

They contain the long chain unsaturated fatty acidأحماض دهنية غير مشبعة + amino alcohol sphingosine+ phosphoric acid + choline base.

Importance Present in plasma membranes of nerve tissue   

(10) Essential amino acids:

They are not formed in the body .IT essential to supply them in diet.

Their deficiency ↓ the rate of growth and protein synthesis.أحماض امينية هامة لايستطيع الجسم تصنيعها وعلى ذلك فانة لابد ان يحصل عيلها فى غذائة

They are :

          Valine ,leucine, isoleucine, methionine , lysine, phenylalanine and tryptophan.

(11) Important products produced from different amino acids?

*ســـــــــؤال هــــــــــام جـــــــــــــــدا


Special products

Amino acids
Thyroid hormone (T3- T4)
Norepinephrin.Epinephrin .Melanine pigmentصبغة الميلانين
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Serotonine , Melatonine , Nicotinic Acid
Tryptophan

Histamine by decarboxylation

Histidine
Synthesis of HEME:
Component of hemoglobin
Synthesis  of Creatine :
Phosoharylated with ATP into creatin phosphate
The storage form of energy in muscle.
Glutathion:
Coenzyme for important enzymes
Purine base: Component of edenine guanine.


Glycine



(12) Write short note about DNA? (compare between DNA and RNA ) سؤال هام جدا

*Its structure with two strands wound  around each other in a double helix to resemble a twisted خيطين ملفوفين حول بعضهم مثل الحلزون  

*The two strands contain complementary information :Aforms hydrogen bonds only with T,C

Only with G

(13) Write short note about RNA

(A) Ribosomal RNA  (r RNA)

In cytoplasm ribosomal RNA and protein combine يتحدوا to form a nucleoprotein called ribosome.

The ribosome serves as the site and carries the enzymes necessary for protein synthesis

t RNA :

Contains about 75 nucleotides .three of which are called anticodon الكودون المضاد and one amino acid.

The t RNA reads the code and carries the amino acid to be incorporated in the developing protein.

m RNA :

Single stranded molecule of RNA is synthesized from agene  segment of DNA

Which ultimately contains the information of the primary sequence of amino acids in a protein to  be synthesized.

(14) Translation

Its means incorporation of amino acids → protein

The translation follows the transcription up : in the cytoplasm ,morepreciselyinribosomes located in poly ribosomal complexes or  in the rough endoplasmatic reticulum.

*r RNA unite bindes a single – strand mRNA chain ,which enhosts the genetic codes as mirror the DNA template.

t RNA units carry amino acids to the ribosomes where they are coupled to form a polypeptide

the  sequence and numbers of amino acids is determined by the genetic code , consisting of three consequent m RNA bases

          (15) ThyroxineHormone

Function :

1-increase the basal metabolic rateزيادة معدل الأيض   affect protein synthesis , help regulate long bone growth and neuronal maturationنمو الخلايا العصبية .

 2- Important to proper development and differentiation of all cells of human body.

3- Regulate (protein-fat-carbohydrate) Metabolism

Excess and deficiency:

1 – Hyperthyroidism (graves disease)زيادة نشاط الغدة الدرقية

Is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulation free thyroxine,

Free triidothyronine or both

2 – Hypothyroidism(goiter) :Is the case where there is a deficiency of thyroxine , triiodiothyronine.

(16) Insulin hormone

Is synthesized in the pancreas within the B cells of islets of langerhans.

Is synthesized from the proinsulin precursor molecule the action of photolytic enzymes

Insulin is a hormone central to regulation carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body .

Insulin causes cells in the liver ,muscle and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood , storing it as glycogen in the liver

Deficiency of insulin hormone :Diabetes mellitus.

(17) Glucagon

Is synthesizedيصنع in the pancreas within the   cells of the islets of langerhans

The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar levels fall to low

Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose , which is released into the blood stream

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(18 ) Growth Hormones

Is a peptide hormone

Function

Stimulate growth , cells reproduction and regeneration in humans  

2- promotes lipolysis تحلل الدهون

3- Increases protein synthesis

4- Reduces liver uptake of glucose

5- Promotes gluconeogenesis

Acromegaly :Excess GH thickens the bones of the jaw, fingers and toes.

Dwarfism: growth hormone deficiency , lead to growth failure and short stature

 (19) Prolactin

Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk

Increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of mammary glands الغدد الثديية of the breast and prepare for production of milk.

Hyperprolactinaemia  Excess serum prolactin is associated with hypoestrogenism , oligomenorrhoea amenorrhea's infertilityالعقم

(20) vitamin A

Source :milk – egg –fish liver oil- vegetable and fruits

Function

1 – Vision : enters in the structure of rhodopsin (الارجوان البصرى:مادة حساسة للضوء موجودة فى شبكية العين مسئولة عن الرؤية فى الضوء الخافت)  which essential for vision in dim light

2-Mentanance of normal epithelium and skin

3- Reproduction                  4- Retinoic acid is important for growth

Deficiency of Vit A

Night blindness : Visual acuity is diminished in dim light

(21) Vitamin D

Its important in calcium and phosphorous metabolism 

Derived from cholesterol initiated in liver catalyzed by enzyme 7-dehydrogenase converted to 7-dehydrocholesterol

7-dehydrocholesterol is stored under skin via the action of  UV light on the skin is converted into vitamin D

Source:fish liver oil egg yolk and liver, milk is a poor source of vit D

Deficiency of vitamin D

Rickets in childrenلين العظام فى الاطفال(الكساح) – Osteomalacia in adult

Daily requirements :

Infants and children 400U/day

Pregnant and lactating female 800IU/day

Vitamin K (22)

Source :

1 – Synthesis by intestinal floraبكتريا الامعاء

2 – Dark green vegetables spinach and cabbage

3 – Animal products like liver and yolk صفار البيض contain little amounts

Function :

Vit K is necessary for blood coagulation

Deficiency

1 – Causes : medication interfere with vitamin k's synthesized its action in the body (antibiotic kill the bacteria that produce vit k

2 - manifested by remarkable tendency to bleed profusely from minor wounds النزيف الكثير من جروح بسيطة

Vitamin C(23)

Source :citrus fruit الفاكهة الحمضية – tomatoes

Function:Synthesis  of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine two modified amino acids that are required for collagen synthesis

Deficiency:  lead to scurvy مرض الاسقربوط associated with slow healing wounds –weakened connective tissue –bleeding gums نزيف اللثةan anemia





Typed by: Ahmed Elhady

 Prepared by: Amro Abo Hashim

Water-soluble vitamins nutritional deficiency diseases(24)

Disease
Vitamin
Scurvy
Ascorbic (C )
Pellagraمرض يصاحبة اضراب فى ايض الكربوهيدرات والدهون
Nicotinic acid
Growth retardation

Riboflavin (B2 )

Dermatitis in chickens

Pantothenate (B3 )

Beriberi
Thiamine (B1)
Dermatitis in rats

Pyridoxal (B6)

Dermatitis in humans
Biotin
Anemia
Folate
Pernicious anemia
Cobalamin (B12)

Iron (25)

Source: liver – kidney – spleen –Molasses –Spinach – Dates

Factors affection iron absorption :

1-  Amount of iron ingested   2- Solubility of iron

3- state of iron     4 – Copper (Ceruloplasmin)  5- need of the body

Iron containing compound

A)  Heme iron (75%)

Hemoglobin  - Myoglobin   - Respiratory enzymes Cytochrome

B)  Non-heme iron (25%)

1- Transferrin :transport form in plasma carry iron to liverيوجد الحديد فية متحدا مع البروتين لتكوين الجزىء الناقل

2- Iron containing glycoprotein (B-Globulin)

3- Ferritin: Principle storage form liver kidney and bone marrow

4- Hemosidrin :to store excess iron صيغة معقدة لتخزين الحديد فى الجسم

Plasma iron : 90-120  Requirements : adult 10mg/day

Copper (26)

Plasma level :80-120 ug/di

Function :

1-  Hemopoiesis عملية تكوين خلايا دم جديدة فى نخاع العظم

 2- normal function of nervous system

                                    3- Cytochrome oxidase  superoxide dismutase

 4- Hemocyaninهو بروتين أزرق يدخل النحاس فى معظم تركيبة يوجد فى اللافقاريات وظيفتة مثل الهيموجلوبين فى دم الفقاريات

Requirements : 1-3 mg/day

Zinc(27)

Function :

1 – Growth  reproduction

2 – Tissue repair – wound healing

3 – Crystallization storage release of insulin

4- Mobilization of vitamin A from stores

5 –RNA DNA synthesis

6- inhibits the testicular proteolytic enzymes يثبط انزيم تحليل البروتين فى الخصية

Source: Meat –fish- cereal- green leafy vegetable

Plasma zinc level :70-150mg/dI

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(28) Calcium

Function

1 – form structure of bone and teeth

2- Normal muscle contraction

3- Transmission of nerve impulses

4- decrease neuromuscular excitability

5- clotting of blood

Factor affecting calcium plasma level

1 – Vit D increase absorption

2- parathyroid hormone by activation vit D

3- calcitonin and katacalcin

4- plasma protein

Sources : milk- cheese- vegetables-beans-nuts

(29) Buffers المحاليل المنظمة

Buffers is ability of solution to resist change in ph upon addition of alkali or acid يقاوم اى تغيير فى ايون الهيدروجين

Buffer system is amixture of weak acid and its salt of strong base as bicarbonate buffer (H2CO3/NaHCO3) which resist a change in pH when acid or alkali is added

(30) Nitrogen balance

Def            balance between nitrogen intake and nitrogen output , represents the balance  between protein anabolism and protein catabolism.

Stages of nitrogen balance:

1-Normal nitrogen balance       intake equal out put occurs in healthy adult

2-Positive nitrogen balance        nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen output (anabolism)    occurs in pregnancy , growing child , muscular training and after surgery.

3-Negative nitrogen balance         Nitrogen output exceedsيتجاوز nitrogen intake.   Catabolism     its occurs in    A- catabolic disease like diabetes mellitus, cancer, fever ,cushing syndromeمرض ناتج عن زيادة هرمون الكورتيزول فى الدم B – Inadequate intake of protein : malnutrition, malabsorption  c- loss protein like burns and hemorrhage

(31) Enzyme inhibitorمثبطات الانزيم

Def        Molecule that binds to an enzyme and decrease its activity جزيئات ترتبط مع الانزيم وتقلل نشاطة

Types   

Reversible inhibition تثبيط عكسى ولايزول بزوال المثبط→ inhibitor that can reversibly bind and dissociate from enzyme

Competitiveتنافسى : has close structural similarities to the normal substrate and therefore competes with the substrate and therefore the active site.تركيب المثبط يشبة تركيب المادة الهدف فيرتبط المثبط مع الانزيم على الموقع النشط فيمنع ارتباطه بالمادة الهدف

Irreversible inhibitionغير عكسى يزول بزوال المثبط   Inactivator that irreversibly associated with enzyme activity of enzyme doesn’t recover with dilution usually covalent interaction

(32) Factor affecting Enzyme activity

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(33)  compare between  acidosis and alkalosis







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                                                                                                                                                                    Lactos 

a.Invert sugar                                            b. Reducing sugar

c. Consisted of two units of glucose      d. Nonreducing sugar

2- deoxyribose participates in the following compound

a. Sialic acid              b. Lactose                    c. RNA                D .DNA

3- Hyaluronic acid is consisted of

a. Sulfated glucosamine and glucuronic acid

b. N-acetyl glucosamine and glucuronic acid

c. Neuraminic acid and pyrucic acid

d. Sulfated glucuronic acid and galactoseamine

4- The parent compound of the W-3 fatty acids is

a. Oleic acid        b. Linoleic acid      c. Linolinic acid       d. Arachidonic acid

5- The correct sequence of lipoproteins in the order (left to right) of increasing protein content is :

a. Chylomicron,HDL,LDL,VLDL

B. HDL, LDL, VLDL, CHYLOMICRON

C. CHYLOMICRONS, VLDL,LDL,HDL

D. VLDL, LDL, HDL, chylomicrons

E. VLDL, LDL, chylomicrons, HDL

(6-9) For each vitamin listened below ,select the metabolic process with which it is most likely to be associated

6.  vitamin E            7. Niacin          8. Vitamin D           9. Vitamin K

a. Need for synthesis of hydrogen carrier NADH  (7)

b. Has Antioxidant properties      (6)

c. Important for blood clotting    (9)

d. Participates in calcium metabolism   (8)

10- Which of the following  statements regarding vitamin a is true

a. Vit A promotes maintenance of epithelial tissue

b. Vit A is necessary for hearing

c. Vit A is synthesized in the skin

d. Vit A is form of calciferol

11- The milk sugar is

a. Sucrose              b. Lactose          c. Mannose          d. Maltose

12- Protein of high biological value is rich in

a. Essential amino acids

b. Basic amino acids hydroxylysine

c. Non essential amino acids

d. A cidic amino acid glutamate

13- The following minerals act as anti oxidant EXCEPT

a. Zinc        b. Calcium       c. Copper    d. Selenium

14- Which on of the following organ has the highest demand of glucose as fuel

a. Brain             b. Skeletal muscle       c. Heart          d. Liver    e. Pancreas

15- All are true about ammonia EXCEPT

a. Hyperammonemia  may lead to coma or even death

b. Primary hyperamonemia is due to hereditary enzymatic deficiency of the urea cycle enzymes.

c. Main fate of ammonia is urea formation

d. Glutamine is non toxic storage and transpprt from ammonia

e.  Elevated level is not toxic to brain

16- Normal level of serum calcium

a.  7 – 8 mg/dl     b. 7.8 – 8.8mg/dl    c. 8.8 – 10.8 mg/dl    d. 3 – 7  mg/dl

17- The principal source of glucose after fasting  to 14 hours  is

a. G lycogenolysis                                   b. HMP pathway

b. Oxidative phosphrtlation                  d. Gluconeogenesis    e. Glycolysis

18- Favism is due to deficiency of

a. G-6-Phosphatase                          c. Fructokinase

b. Glucokinase                                   d. G-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase

19- Normal level of fasting blood glucose is

a. 70 – 110 mg/dl       b. 40-70 mg/dl            c.20-40 mg/dl   

d. 120- 150 mg/dl        e. 150 – 200 mg/dl

20- Which one of the following hormones stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver only

a. Insulin        b. Glucagon        c. Epinephrine     d. Noradrenaline   e. a-b

21- The end product of glycogenolysis in liver cells is :

a. Glucose -1-Phosphate                              b. Glucose -1-phosphate

c. Glucose                       c. Lactate               d. Pyruvate

22- Importance of HMP pathway in red blood cells id :

a- Production of ATP                                             b. Production of NADP

c. Production of NADPH                                        c. Production of NADH

23- The form in which most dietary fatty acids are packed and exported from the intestinal lumen into intestinal cells is as :

a. VLDL          b. Free triglycerides     c. Mixed micelles    d. chylomicron

24- All the following are derived from cholesterol Except

a. Steroid hormone     b. Bile acids       c. vitamin D3      d. Vitamin A

25- causes of hyper-cholesterolaemia  , all of the following Except

a. Hyper B-Lipoproteinaemia                               c. Diabetes Mellitus

b. Liver diasease                                           d. High fat carbohydrate diet

26- Energy production per one turn of TCA cycle

a. 8ATP            b. 6ATP                        c. 15 ATP            d. 12 ATP

27- Of the following, the best important determinant of glucose homeostasis in normal individual is :

a. Glucagon      b. Thyroid hormone     c. Insulin    d. Glucagon/Insulin ratio

28- To prevent osteoporosis in females must take milk fortified with

a. 7-Dehyrocholesterol   b. Vitamin D3    c. Vitamin A    d. Vitamin C  

   e. Vitamin B12

29 – Calicium metabolism is regulated by

a. Vitamin A   b. Vitamin D   c. Vitamin B6    d. Vitamin B12    e. Vitamin C

29- Vitamin participates in vision is

a. Vit E            b. Vit  D             c. Vit K         d. Vit A             e.Vit C     

30- The purpose of urea production in human is

a. Store nitrogen for later biosynthetic reactions

b. Provide a  Precursor for synthesis of nucleic acids

c. AS a byproduct in synthesis of arginine an essential amino acid

d. Facilitate the swapping of amino groups from one amino acid to another

e. execrate  nitrogen from the body

Zagazig university                            Timed allowed :3 hours

Faculty of Nursing                                   Date: 2015                     

Biochemistry

I. Write a short account on

1- Phospholipids

2- Glucosuria

3- Essential amino acids

4- Enzymes inhibitors.



II.Write full account on

1- Favism

2- Nitrogen balance

3- Mode of action of steroid hormones

4-Denaturation of protein

III.Enumerate

1- Function and deficiency of vitamin A

2- Function of cholesterol

3- Types and function of lipoproteins

4- Function of calcium and factor affecting its plasma level

Zagazig university                            Timed allowed :3 hours

Faculty of Nursing                                   Date: 2015 تخلفات                   

Biochemistry



I. Write a short account on

1-Regulation of blood glucose

2- Essential fatty acid.

3- Lipoproteins

4- Simple proteins

II. Write full account on

1- Causes if hypercholesterolemia

2- Factors affecting enzyme activity

3- Mode of action of hydrophilic hormone

4- Favism

III. Enumerate

1- Function and deficiency of vitamin D.

1- Function and deficiency of growth hormones

3- Biological important of kerbs cycle

4- States of Nitrogen balance

Good luck  Ahmed Elhady



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